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Ultra-high energy storage performance with mitigated polarization saturation in lead-free relaxors
- Yang, Letao, Kong, Xi, Cheng, Zhenxiang, Zhang, Shujun
- Journal of materials chemistry A 2019 v.7 no.14 pp. 8573-8580
- ceramics, electric field, electricity generation, energy density, energy efficiency, renewable energy sources, temperature, thermal stability, tin, titanium
- Relaxor ferroelectric ceramics have attracted much attention for storing the electricity generated from clean and renewable energy sources due to their high permittivity and near-zero remnant polarization. The polarization of many relaxor based ceramics tends to saturate at high electric fields, however, which limits their energy storage performance. In this study, a lead-free Sn-modified (Na₀.₅Bi₀.₅)TiO₃–SrTiO₃ system is investigated, where mitigated polarization saturation is observed with the addition of Sn⁴⁺, as a result of the different electronic configurations between d¹⁰ Sn⁴⁺ and d⁰ Ti⁴⁺. As expected, high energy density of 3.4 J cm⁻³ and energy efficiency of 90% are simultaneously achieved in (Na₀.₂₅Bi₀.₂₅Sr₀.₅)(Ti₀.₈Sn₀.₂)O₃ ceramic. In addition, the ceramic exhibits good thermal stability, with the energy storage property variations below 5% over the temperature range of −20 °C to 150 °C, and satisfactory cycling stability with a variation of less than 8% over 10⁵ cycles. All these merits demonstrate that the (Na₀.₂₅Bi₀.₂₅Sr₀.₅)(Ti₀.₈Sn₀.₂)O₃ ceramic has great potential for high power energy storage applications.