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Imidacloprid induced alterations in oxidative stress, biochemical, genotoxic, and immunotoxic biomarkers in non-mammalian model organism Galleria mellonella L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)
- Yucel, Mehmet Sait, Kayis, Tamer
- Journal of environmental science and health 2019 v.54 no.1 pp. 27-34
- Galleria mellonella, antioxidants, biomarkers, catalase, dose response, enzyme activity, genotoxicity, imidacloprid, immunotoxicity, lipid peroxidation, lipids, mechanism of action, models, mutagens, nontarget organisms, oxidative stress, pest control, protein content, risk, superoxide dismutase
- Imidacloprid (IMI), a neonicotinoid insecticide, is widely used to control pests in agriculture. We investigated the changes in antioxidant enzyme activities, lipid peroxidation levels, biochemical effects, genotoxic effect, and immunotoxic effect of sublethal doses (0.25, 0.50, 0.75, and 1.00 µg) of IMI at different time periods (24, 48, 72, and 96 h) on a model organism, Galleria mellonella L. The results indicated that there were dose-dependent increases in both antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD and CAT) and MDA levels. Protein content was not affected by IMI at 24th and 48th, whereas it was decreased by the highest dose of IMI (1.00 µg) at 72nd and 96th h. Lipid and carbohydrate contents were reduced with increasing doses of IMI. Micronucleus frequency significantly increased in all IMI doses. All IMI doses caused a significant decrease in THC at 24th, 48th, and 72nd h. Our results can help to illustrate the effects of IMI in target organisms and indirectly may aid to discover potential risk of it on nontarget organisms. Future studies, at molecular levels, will be helpful in understanding the mechanism of action of IMI on these biomarkers.