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Pressurized liquid extraction of six tetracyclines from agricultural soils
- Popova, Inna E., Morra, Matthew J., Parikh, Sanjai J.
- Journal of environmental science and health 2019 v.54 no.1 pp. 35-40
- agricultural soils, animal manures, animal well-being, chlortetracycline, detection limit, groundwater, high performance liquid chromatography, land application, liquids, mass spectrometry, metabolites, organic carbon, oxytetracycline, pH, quantitative analysis, risk, soil minerals, veterinary drugs
- Veterinary antibiotics used in agriculture can be introduced into the environment through land application of animal manure, accumulating in soils and groundwaters and posing a significant risk to human health and animal well-being. As the analysis of tetracyclines in soil is challenging due to their strong interaction with soil minerals and organic carbon, the objective of this study was to develop a reliable and reproducible method for quantitative analysis of chlortetracycline and oxytetracycline, and their respective metabolites in soils. A method based on pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) with in-cell clean-up was developed for the extraction of chlortetracycline and oxytetracycline and four likely metabolites from a set of four soils. Optimized conditions included a cell size of 22 mL, soil loading of 5 g, pH of 8.0, methanol:water ratio of 3:1, 50 °C, and two cycles. Soil extracts were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with ion trap mass spectrometry (MS). Recoveries of seven tetracyclines from soil ranged from 41% to 110%. The limits of detection for tetracyclines were 0.08–0.3 µg g⁻¹ soil, and intra- and inter-day variation ranged from 0.12–0.34%. The proposed PLE method is suitable for quantification of tetracyclines in agricultural soils at typical concentrations expected in contaminated environments.