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Non‐destructive characterization of egg odor and fertilization status by SPME/GC‐MS coupled with electronic nose

Xiang, Xiao‐le, Wang, Ya‐lan, Yu, Zhi‐hui, Ma, Mei‐hu, Zhu, Zhi‐hui, Jin, Yon‐guo
Journal of the science of food and agriculture 2019 v.99 no.7 pp. 3264-3275
White Leghorn, breeding, discriminant analysis, eggs, electronic nose, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, laying hens, least squares, odors, solid phase microextraction, spectrometers
BACKGROUND: Early and non‐destructive identification of fertile (F) eggs is a difficult task in the process of breeding laying hens. The odors emitted from unfertilized (UF), infertile (IF), and fertile (F) eggs were characterized by solid‐phase microextraction / gas chromatograph‐mass spectrometry (SPME/GC‐MS) and electronic nose (E‐nose) to determine their differences by principal component, partial least squares, and canonical discriminant analyses. RESULTS: A total of 14 volatiles were identified in unhatched shell white Leghorn eggs, such as nonanal, decanal, 6‐methyl‐5‐hepten‐2‐one, and 6,10‐dimethyl‐5,9‐undecadien‐2‐one. Cedrene and decanal contributed greatly to the classification of UF and fertilized (Fd)/IF eggs; cedrene, decanal, 1‐octanol and hexanal contributed greatly to the distinction between UF and IF eggs; heptanal might be the potential marker to determine F/IF eggs. P40/1, P10/2, P10/1, TA/2, T40/2 and T30/1, P30/1, P40/2, PA/2, T40/2 mostly contributed to the distinction between UF and Fd eggs and between F and IF eggs, respectively. Canonical discriminant analysis presented superior differentiating efficiency for almost all groups, and the odor differences between UF and Fd eggs were significantly larger than the differences between F and IF eggs. CONCLUSION: Solid‐phase microextraction / gas chromatograph‐mass spectrometer combined with E‐nose may have the potential to non‐destructively distinguish UF, F, and IF eggs, which will provide a new perspective to understand the differences among them. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry