Main content area

Enzymatic production of emulsifying whey protein hydrolysates without the need of heat inactivation

Ewert, Jacob, Luz, Anja, Volk, Veronika, Stressler, Timo, Fischer, Lutz
Journal of the science of food and agriculture 2019 v.99 no.7 pp. 3443-3450
aspergillopepsin, bitterness, emulsifying, emulsifying properties, enzymatic hydrolysis, enzyme inactivation, half life, heat inactivation, hydrolysates, hydrolysis, pH, protein denaturation, protein hydrolysates, taste, temperature, viscosity, whey protein isolate
BACKGROUND: One possible way to modify the emulsifying properties of whey proteins is by enzymatic hydrolysis. However, most studies covering the influence of the hydrolysis on whey proteins used a heating step (>65 °C) to inactivate the enzyme. This leads to irreversible product changes, like protein denaturation and increased viscosity. Here, the objective was to investigate the single effect of hydrolysis on the emulsifying properties of whey proteins under conditions without a temperature step for enzyme inactivation. Therefore, two acidic peptidase preparations (Maxipro AFP, Protease AP‐30L) differing in their peptidase composition were investigated and applied at 45 °C and pH 2.75. The enzyme inactivation was realized by a simple shift to pH 7.0. RESULTS: After the pH shift, no activity or further hydrolysis was measurable. For the products, no differences (assuming P > 0.05) regarding the emulsifying properties were detected between the two peptidase preparations used. The emulsifying properties of the whey protein isolate hydrolysates produced increased (i.e. half‐life >71%) until a degree of hydrolysis of 1.1%. This indicated that the endopeptidase (aspergillopepsin I) present in both preparations was determining the emulsifying properties. As a plus, the presence of exopeptidases in Protease AP‐30L compared with Maxipro AFP reduced the bitterness of the hydrolysate (−50%). CONCLUSION: The application of acidic endo‐ and exopeptidases enables the production of emulsifying whey protein isolate hydrolysates at high protein concentrations (≥10%) without a commonly used heat inactivation step. The presence of exopeptidases in acidic peptidase preparations is favorable, due to the improved taste. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry