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Exploring the molecular interface between hypoxia-inducible factor signalling and mitochondria

Thomas, Luke W., Ashcroft, Margaret
Cellular and molecular life sciences 2019 v.76 no.9 pp. 1759-1777
adenosine triphosphate, biogenesis, energy, eukaryotic cells, fuels, glucose, glutamine, hypoxia, lipids, metabolism, mitochondria, oxygen, signal transduction, transcription factors
Oxygen is required for the survival of the majority of eukaryotic organisms, as it is important for many cellular processes. Eukaryotic cells utilize oxygen for the production of biochemical energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) generated from the catabolism of carbon-rich fuels such as glucose, lipids and glutamine. The intracellular sites of oxygen consumption-coupled ATP production are the mitochondria, double-membraned organelles that provide a dynamic and multifaceted role in cell signalling and metabolism. Highly evolutionarily conserved molecular mechanisms exist to sense and respond to changes in cellular oxygen levels. The primary transcriptional regulators of the response to decreased oxygen levels (hypoxia) are the hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs), which play important roles in both physiological and pathophysiological contexts. In this review we explore the relationship between HIF-regulated signalling pathways and the mitochondria, including the regulation of mitochondrial metabolism, biogenesis and distribution.