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Cascade laser sensing concepts for advanced breath diagnostics

Tütüncü, Erhan, Mizaikoff, Boris
Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry 2019 v.411 no.9 pp. 1679-1686
biomarkers, diagnostic techniques, disease course, gas chromatography, instrumentation, mass spectrometry, monitoring, point-of-care systems, therapeutics
With more than a thousand constituents at trace level concentrations, exhaled breath analysis (EBA) allows for non-invasive point-of-care (POC) disease diagnostics and metabolic status monitoring in or close to real-time. A number of biomarkers in breath may be used to not only identify diseases and disease progression but also to monitor therapeutic interventions. Although the relationship of selected breath components/biomarkers with certain disease pathologies is well established, diagnosing the exhaled breath composition remains an analytical and practical challenge due to the concentration levels of molecules of interest, i.e., low parts-per-billion (ppb) regime and below. Besides the analytical assessment of breath components via conventional methods such as gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry and related techniques, the application of cascade laser spectroscopy (CLS) is relatively new and exhibits several advantages when aiming for compact and user-friendly trace gas sensors with high molecular selectivity, the required sensitivity, and potentially reasonable instrumental costs. This trend article highlights the current status and potential of CLS in breath diagnostics with a focus on recent advancements in instrumentation and application along with future prospects and challenges. Graphical abstract Cascade laser technology in the mid-infrared spectral range enables sensitive and molecularly selective exhaled breath analysis with near real-time response, label-free detection, and point-of-care feasibility.