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Complete mitochondrial genome of Indian mithun, Bos frontalis and its phylogenetic implications

Prabhu, Vandana R., Arjun, Moolamkudy Suresh, Bhavana, Karippadakam, Kamalakkannan, Ranganathan, Nagarajan, Muniyandi
Molecular biology reports 2019 v.46 no.2 pp. 2561-2566
Bos frontalis, cattle, genes, genetic relationships, hybrids, indigenous species, mithuns, mitochondrial genome, phylogeny, ribosomal RNA, transfer RNA, Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar
Mithun (Bos frontalis) is an endangered domestic bovine species native to the hilly areas of China, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Bhutan and India. It is believed to have been domesticated from gaur around 8000 years ago. However, a few studies suggest that mithun is either an independent species or a hybrid descendant of gaur and cattle. Therefore, to understand the evolutionary history of mithun, the complete mitochondrial genome of Indian mithun was sequenced and compared with the mitochondrial genome of closely related Bos species. The mitochondrial genome of mithun was 16,346 bp long and consisted of 22 tRNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, and a control region. The phylogenetic assessments of Indian mithun along with other Bos species showed a very close genetic relationship of Indian mithun with gaur suggesting that Indian mithun might have evolved from gaur.