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First detection and phylogenetic analysis of porcine circovirus type 2 in raccoon dogs

Song, Tao, Hao, Jianxiang, Zhang, Ran, Tang, Menghu, Li, Wenao, Hui, Weirong, Fu, Qiyuan, Wang, Chunfang, Xin, Shuyang, Zhang, Shoucong, Rui, Ping, Ren, Hai, Ma, Zengjun
BMC veterinary research 2019 v.15 no.1 pp. 107
Nyctereutes procyonoides, Porcine circovirus, Porcine circovirus-2, calves, chi-square distribution, dog diseases, dogs, farms, genotype, goats, livestock and meat industry, mice, mink, phylogeny, retrospective studies, sequence homology, swine, viruses, China
BACKGROUND: Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is a major emerging virus of porcine circovirus-associated disease (PCVAD), which has brought huge economic losses to the global pig industry. Pigs are well known as the natural reservoir of PCV2. Recently, many researchers have revealed PCV2 could infect many other mammals like mice, calves, minks, dogs and goats. In 2018, our laboratory has admitted six cases of raccoon dogs from Qinhuangdao city of China, which were characterized by inappetence, lethargy, depression, abortion, and sterility. RESULTS: At last, six raccoon dog-origin PCV2 strains were isolated in this study. Pairwise-sequence comparisons demonstrated that the six raccoon dog-origin PCV2 strains shared a nucleotide similarity of 92.1–99.8% among 40 PCV2 representative strains. Phylogenetic analysis indicated these PCV2 isolates belonged to Chinese epidemic genotypes PCV2b and PCV2d. And aborted or sterile symptom was significantly associated with PCV2 infection in raccoon dogs by the chi-square test (χ² = 87.3, p < 0.001). The retrospective study revealed that raccoon dog-origin PCV2 strains shared 100% sequence similarity with the PCV2 stains isolated from pig farms around these raccoon dog farms, respectively. CONCLUSION: In this study, the first supported evidence of PCV2 prevalence in raccoon dog farms of China was documented. PCV2 may be one of the most significant causative agents resulting in the reproductive failure of farmed raccoon dogs, implying that PCV2 could transmit from pigs to raccoon dogs. That indicated that PCV2 cross-species transmission will be a serious threat to China’s fur animal farming industry.