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Protection against UV-induced oxidative stress and DNA damage by Amazon moss extracts

Fernandes, A.S., Mazzei, J.L., Evangelista, H., Marques, M.R.C., Ferraz, E.R.A., Felzenszwalb, I.
Journal of photochemistry and photobiology 2018 v.183 pp. 331-341
2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, DNA damage, Salmonella Typhimurium, UV filters, auxotrophs, benzophenones, biosynthesis, cinnamic acid, filters, flavanones, flavonols, high performance liquid chromatography, histidine, mosses and liverworts, mutagenicity, mutagens, oxidative stress, secondary metabolites, spectroscopy, synergism, ultraviolet radiation
Amazon mosses, such as Holomitriopsis laevifolia and Leucobryum sp. are naturally exposed to high levels of solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Theoretically, under environmental stress conditions these mosses have developed protective chemical and metabolic strategies against UV damage, by way of biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, such as flavonoids. The present paper aimed to evaluate the free-radical scavenging activity, and the photoprotective, mutagenic and photomutagenic potencies of the methanolic (ME), aqueous (AE), hydroalcoholic (HE), ethanolic (EE) extracts of H. laevifolia and Leucobryum sp. The phenolic contents were evaluated by spectrophotometry and by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The present findings showed that the AE and HE of H. laevifolia and the AE of Leucobryum sp. presented the highest phenolic contents. The HPLC analysis indicated the presence mainly of phenolic and cinnamic acids, flavonols, flavones and flavanones. The AE and EE of H. laevifolia and the AE and HE of Leucobryum sp. efficiently scavenged the 2,2′-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. All extracts showed significant values of in vitro Sun Protection Factor alone, and HE of Leucobryum sp. showed a synergistic effect in association with benzophenone-3. None of the extracts induced mutagenicity in the auxotrophic strains for histidine of Salmonella typhimurium, and photomutagenicity of the TA102 and TA104 strains was not detected after exposure to UV-A radiation. Besides, all extracts showed photoprotective activity against UV-A radiation for the TA104 strain, including synergistic protection in association with BP-3. Thus, the constituents in H. Laevifolia and Leucobryum sp. could be good candidates for cosmetic and dermatological applications, particularly in association with synthetic UV filters, since the concentration of the filters in the final product could be reduced.