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A deep learning approach to anomaly detection in geological carbon sequestration sites using pressure measurements

Zhong, Zhi, Sun, Alexander Y., Yang, Qian, Ouyang, Qi
Journal of hydrology 2019 v.573 pp. 885-894
carbon, carbon dioxide, carbon sequestration, cost effectiveness, data collection, hydrology, monitoring, neural networks, time series analysis, Mississippi
Carbon capture and storage (CCS) has been extensively investigated as a potential engineering measure to reduce anthropogenic carbon emission to the atmosphere. Real-time monitoring of the safety and integrity of carbon storage reservoirs is a critical aspect of any commercial-scale CCS deployment. Pressure-based sensing is cost effective, suitable for real-time monitoring, and scalable to large monitoring networks. However, questions remain on how to best harness intelligent information from the high-frequency pressure monitoring sensors to support real-time decisions. This work presents a deep-learning-based framework for analyzing and detecting anomalies in pressure data streams by using a convolutional long short-term memory (ConvLSTM) neural network model, which allows for the fusion of both static and dynamic reservoir data. In ConvLSTM, the convolutional neural network (CNN) is used for spatial pattern mining and the LSTM is used for temporal pattern recognition. The performance of the ConvLSTM model for real-time anomaly detection is demonstrated using a set of pressure monitoring data collected from Cranfield, Mississippi, an active enhanced-oil-recovery field. The anomaly detection model is trained using bottom-hole pressure data acquired from the base experiment (without leak event) and then tested on pressure data collected during a series of controlled CO2 release experiments (with artificially created leak events). Results show that the ConvLSTM neural network model successfully detected anomalies in the pressure time series obtained from the controlled release experiments. Inclusion of static information into the model further improves the robustness of ConvLSTM.