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Species and life-stage specific differences in cadmium accumulation and cadmium induced oxidative stress, metallothionein and heat shock protein responses in white sturgeon and rainbow trout

Shekh, Kamran, Tang, Song, Kodzhahinchev, Vladimir, Niyogi, Som, Hecker, Markus
The Science of the total environment 2019 v.673 pp. 318-326
Acipenser transmontanus, Oncorhynchus mykiss, antioxidant activity, biomarkers, cadmium, environmental assessment, genes, heat shock proteins, metallothionein, oxidative stress, risk assessment process, toxicity, toxicology, trout
Understanding the mechanistic basis of differences in the sensitivity of fishes to metals is important for developing informed ecological risk assessment approaches for metals. Whole body metal accumulation, metallothionein induction, oxidative stress and associated antioxidant response, as well as heat shock proteins (mainly HSP70) are known to play important roles in determining the toxicity of metals in fish. Hence, in this study we have cross-evaluated these parameters as a function of Cd exposure across different life-stages of two evolutionarily distinct fish species, namely rainbow (Oncorhynchus mykiss) trout and white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus). These two species have been shown to differ significantly in their physiological and apical responses to Cd exposure. The findings of the present study suggest that species-specific differences in the sensitivity to Cd could partially be explained by HSP70 gene response and oxidative damage biomarkers. However, not all the parameters studied in this study could explain the life-stage specific differences universally and were limited to only some life-stages. Based on the observations in the present study and other recent studies, it is apparent that species- and life-stage specific differences in the sensitivity to Cd and possibly other metals is a complex phenomenon and could be driven by multiple toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic factors.