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Enhancement of galactose consumption rate in Saccharomyces cerevisiae CEN.PK2-1 by CRISPR Cas9 and adaptive evolution for fermentation of Kappaphycus alvarezii hydrolysate

Sunwoo, In Yung, Sukwong, Pailin, Jeong, Deok Yeol, Kim, Soo Rin, Jeong, Gwi-Teak, Kim, Sung-Koo
Journal of biotechnology 2019 v.297 pp. 78-84
Kappaphycus alvarezii, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, culture media, ethanol, evolutionary adaptation, fermentation, galactose, gene editing, genes, hexokinase, hydrolysates, messenger RNA, yeasts
Ethanol ferrmentation of Kappaphycus alvarezii hydrolysates was performed using wild-type (WT) Saccharomyces cerevisiae CEN.PK2-1, hexokinase 2 deleted (Δhxk2) and adapted strain on high galactose concentrations. The WT and Δhxk2 strains produced 8.9 and 14.67 g/L of ethanol with yield coefficient (YEtOH) of 0.20 and 0.33 (g/g), respectively. However, neither the WT nor Δhxk2strain could utilize all of the galactose, leaving 16.4 and 6.2 g/L of galactose in the fermentation broth, respectively. Therefore, fermentation with S. cerevisiae CEN.PK2-1 adapted to galactose was carried out to increase the ethanol yield coefficient (YEtOH), producing a maximum ethanol concentration of 20.0 g/L with a YEtOH of 0.44 (g/g). Ethanol concentration of adapted strain was 1.36–2.25 times higher than WT and Δhxk2 strains. The adapted yeast exhibited the highest transcript levels of GAL genes. The yeast strain via adaptive yeast strain produced ethanol with a higher titer and yield due to a modular activation of GAL genes than WT or the hxk2 deleted strains.