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The effect of apelin-13 on pancreatic islet beta cell mass and myocardial fatty acid and glucose metabolism of experimental type 2 diabetic rats

Feng, Jinghui, Zhao, Hang, Du, Mengze, Wu, Xiuping
Peptides 2019 v.114 pp. 1-7
G-protein coupled receptors, adipokines, animal disease models, biogenesis, blood serum, citrate (si)-synthase, fatty acids, genes, glucose, glycogen, heart, high fat diet, histology, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, hyperlipidemia, insulin, intraperitoneal injection, islets of Langerhans, metabolism, mitochondria, noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, oxidation, pathophysiology, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, rats, tissues, transcription (genetics)
Apelin, a new identified adipokine, and its G protein–coupled receptor named APJ are widely expressed in various tissues. Apelin has been found to play important roles in the physiopathology of multiple diseases. Our aim is to assess the effect of long-term apelin treatment on serum insulin level and pancreatic islet beta-cell mass in the late stage of type 2 diabetes without hyperinsulinemia and to investigate the role of apelin in myocardial fatty acid and glucose metabolism. In the present study, the high-fat diet fed-streptozotocin-induced experimental type 2 diabetic rats were given once daily intraperitoneal injection of apelin-13 (0.1 μmol/kg) for 10 weeks. We observed that apelin significantly improved serum insulin reduction and reduced hyperglycemia. Histologic analysis showed that long-term apelin treatment significantly increased pancreatic islet beta cell mass. Exogenous apelin failed to change dyslipidaemia of type 2 diabetic rats. Apelin treatment markedly decreased elevated myocardial FFA and glycogen content. Treatment of type 2 diabetic rats with apelin markedly reduced increased gene expressions of the cardiac fatty acid transporter CD36, CPT-1, and Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α. Whereas the gene levels of citrate synthase and peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor γ coactivator 1-α (PGC1-α), a transcriptional coactivator, mediating mitochondrial biogenesis in heart were unaltered in response to exogenous apelin. Taken together, longer-term apelin treatment prevented pancreatic beta-cell loss or failure in experimental type 2 diabetic rats. Apelin can regulate myocardial metabolism. Apelin reduced myocadial fatty acid uptake and oxidation through inhibiting PPAR-α but did not affect myocardial mitochondrial biogenesis in type 2 diabetic rats.