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Mycotoxins in uncooked and plate-ready household food from rural northern Nigeria

Ezekiel, Chibundu N., Sulyok, Michael, Ogara, Isaac M., Abia, Wilfred A., Warth, Benedikt, Šarkanj, Bojan, Turner, Paul C., Krska, Rudolf
Food and chemical toxicology 2019 v.128 pp. 171-179
acceptable daily intake, aflatoxin B1, cooked foods, diet, flour, food groups, fumonisin B1, fungi, households, liquid chromatography, metabolites, mixing, nivalenol, risk, tandem mass spectrometry, toxicity, toxicology, Nigeria
In order to understand the changes in toxic metabolite profiles in uncooked and cooked foods, samples of flour/grain (n = 40) and their corresponding plate-ready food (n = 39) were collected from 40 households in two states of northern Nigeria. The food samples were analyzed for multiple fungal metabolites by LC-MS/MS and daily intakes of mycotoxins in the diets were estimated and compared to established margin of exposure (MOE) and tolerable daily intake (TDI) values. Both food groups contained 65 fungal and plant metabolites, inclusive of 23 mycotoxins. The mean concentrations of aflatoxin B1, beauvericin, fumonisin B1 (FB1), FB2, FB3, hydrolysed FB1, moniliformin and nivalenol were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in flour than in the plate-ready food samples. The levels of several mycotoxins were higher in the flour samples than in plate-ready meals by 129–383%. The dilution effect from proportionate mixing of flour samples with water led to 48–100% reduction in detectable mycotoxins in flour to plate-ready meals. Aflatoxins and fumonisins co-occurred in 36% of the plate-ready foods. Exposures of households to aflatoxins and fumonisins based on 95% CI concentration of mycotoxins in the meals were high, suggesting potential health risks based on calculated low MOE and exceedence of stipulated TDI value, respectively.