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Water consumption, crop coefficient and leaf area relations of a Vitis vinifera cv. 'Cabernet Sauvignon' vineyard

Munitz, Sarel, Schwartz, Amnon, Netzer, Yishai
Agricultural water management 2019 v.219 pp. 86-94
Vitis vinifera, arid zones, canopy, climatic factors, crop coefficient, drainage, evapotranspiration, grapes, irrigation, leaf area index, lysimeters, models, mountains, phenology, vegetative growth, vines, vineyards, water management, water stress, water supply, wine quality, wines, Israel
Most cultivated vineyards worldwide are located in semi-arid and arid regions with a limited water supply. Skilled vineyard water management is considered the main tool for controlling vegetative growth and grape quality and for ensuring vineyard sustainability. Imposing an appropriate drought stress at a suitable phenological stage can improve wine quality with almost no yield reduction. A comprehensive irrigation model enabling precise vineyard irrigation should be based on changes in vine water consumption as a function of climate conditions and canopy area.In 2011, six drainage lysimeters were constructed within a commercial 'Cabernet Sauvignon' vineyard located in the central mountains of Israel. Data were collected during six successive years from 2012 – 2017. The daily vine water consumption, ETc (L day−1), was calculated by subtracting the amount of collected drainage (over a 24 h period) from the amount of applied irrigation during the same time period.Seasonal water consumption (ETc) was 715 mm season−1 on average, while seasonal calculated reference evapotranspiration (ETo) was 1237 mm season−1 on average. Maximal crop coefficient (Kc) was 0.8 – 0.9, meaning that actual water consumption was lower than the calculated reference evapotranspiration. Maximal leaf area index (LAI) was 0.9 to 1.7 m2 m-2. The multi-seasonal linear correlation between LAI and Kc was strongly positive and significant.The robust multiyear relationship between LAI & Kc proves that measuring canopy area of wine grapevines is a reliable approach for estimating their Kc. The LAI to Kc relationship that we have established can be used as a basis for developing a comprehensive irrigation model for wine grapevines that integrates both climatic conditions and canopy area.