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Genomic analysis of Staphylococcus aureus along a pork production chain and in the community, Shandong Province, China

Sun, Chengtao, Chen, Baoli, Hulth, Anette, Schwarz, Stefan, Ji, Xing, Nilsson, Lennart E, Ma, Shizhen, Sun, Qiang, Bi, Zhenwang, Wang, Yang, Bi, Zhenqiang, Wu, Congming, Börjesson, Stefan
International journal of antimicrobial agents 2019 v.54 no.1 pp. 8-15
antibiotic resistance, commercial farms, epidemiological studies, farm labor, genes, genomics, humans, livestock and meat industry, markets, methicillin, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, monitoring, nose, phylogeny, pork, public health, sequence analysis, slaughterhouses, swine, virulence, worker honey bees, China
Livestock-associated meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) is an increasingly important public health concern worldwide; however, data on LA-MRSA from Asian countries is scarce. As such, a comprehensive molecular epidemiological survey of S. aureus along a pork production chain and in the community was undertaken in Shandong Province, China. spa typing and whole-genome sequencing were used to survey the occurrence and potential transmission of S. aureus in various sectors, including 899 porcine samples (snout or skin swabs, carcass swabs and pork portions), 845 human nasal samples and 239 environmental samples from commercial farms, a slaughterhouse, a pork wholesale market and the surrounding community. MRSA was detected in higher frequencies in samples from two commercial pig farms (pigs, 49%; farm workers, 64%; environmental samples, 16%) than in samples from the slaughterhouse (fatteners, 8.2%; carcasses, 1.1%; operation workers, 0%; environmental samples, 3.8%), the pork wholesale market (pork, 14%; sellers, 0%) and individuals in the community (6.8%). There were significant differences in population structures, antimicrobial susceptibility profiles, and the presence of resistance and virulence genes between human- and pig-associated isolates. The phylogenetic analysis confirmed the dissemination of LA-MRSA between various segments along the pork production chain. However, MRSA of the same sequence type was not found to be disseminated between the commercial farms and the surrounding communities. Furthermore, one MRSA ST398 was observed, and a novel CC9 variant ST3597 was detected within the chain. The high MRSA carriage rates and the emergence of a new MRSA CC9 variant identified in this study highlight the need for MRSA surveillance.