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Coffee parchment as a new dietary fiber ingredient: Functional and physiological characterization

Benitez, Vanesa, Rebollo-Hernanz, Miguel, Hernanz, Sara, Chantres, Silvia, Aguilera, Yolanda, Martin-Cabrejas, Maria A.
Food research international 2019 v.122 pp. 105-113
adsorption, antioxidant activity, cellulose, cholesterol, dietary fiber, digestibility, enzyme inhibition, flour, gelation, glucose, glycemic effect, ingredients, lignin, milling, oils, phenolic compounds, sodium cholate, starch, triacylglycerol lipase
Coffee parchment was evaluated as a potential dietary fiber ingredient. For this purpose, dietary fiber was extracted by enzymatic and non-enzymatic methods and its physicochemical and in vitro hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic properties were investigated. Results revealed that coffee parchment (flakes and flour) was a good source of insoluble dietary fiber (IDF), mainly composed by xylans (35%), lignin (32%), and cellulose (12%). From results, the IDF extraction seemed not to be required the use of enzymes. Coffee parchment did not stand out by its content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity, but milling process improved them. Due to its physical structure, coffee parchment flakes exhibited high oil holding capacity (3.8 mg L−1), gelation capacity (8%) besides hydration properties, including water holding (3.4 mg L−1), absorption (3.0 mg L−1) and swelling (14 mg L−1) capacities. Its flour and water-insoluble residue showed lower capacities. Nevertheless, these coffee parchment samples presented effective in vitro hypoglycemic properties, showing high glucose adsorption capacity (50–200 mmol L−1), and capacity to decrease its diffusion (13%), and to inhibit α-amylase (52%) that led to lower starch digestibility (until 46%); and also, outstanding in vitro hypolipidemic properties, as inhibition of pancreatic lipase (43%) and binding of cholesterol and sodium cholate (16.6 and 35.3 mg g−1, respectively). These results provide valuable information for the potential use of coffee parchment as new food DF ingredient.