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Extensive nuclear reprogramming and endoreduplication in mature leaf during floral induction

Del Prete, Stefania, Molitor, Anne, Charif, Delphine, Bessoltane, Nadia, Soubigou-Taconnat, Ludivine, Guichard, Cécile, Brunaud, Véronique, Granier, Fabienne, Fransz, Paul, Gaudin, Valérie
BMC plant biology 2019 v.19 no.1 pp. 135
apical meristems, endopolyploidy, florigen, flowering, gene expression regulation, genes, leaves, loci, messenger RNA, non-coding RNA, photoperiod, progeny, transcription factors
BACKGROUND: The floral transition is a complex developmental event, fine-tuned by various environmental and endogenous cues to ensure the success of offspring production. Leaves are key organs in sensing floral inductive signals, such as a change in light regime, and in the production of the mobile florigen. CONSTANS and FLOWERING LOCUS T are major players in leaves in response to photoperiod. Morphological and molecular events during the floral transition have been intensively studied in the shoot apical meristem. To better understand the concomitant processes in leaves, which are less described, we investigated the nuclear changes in fully developed leaves during the time course of the floral transition. RESULTS: We highlighted new putative regulatory candidates of flowering in leaves. We observed differential expression profiles of genes related to cellular, hormonal and metabolic actions, but also of genes encoding long non-coding RNAs and new natural antisense transcripts. In addition, we detected a significant increase in ploidy level during the floral transition, indicating endoreduplication. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that differentiated mature leaves, possess physiological plasticity and undergo extensive nuclear reprogramming during the floral transition. The dynamic events point at functionally related networks of transcription factors and novel regulatory motifs, but also complex hormonal and metabolic changes.