Main content area

Survival and Growth of Wild-Type and rpoS-Deficient Salmonella Newport Strains in Soil Extracts Prepared with Heat-Treated Poultry Pellets

Shah, Manoj K., Bradshaw, Rhodel, Nyarko, Esmond, Millner, Patricia D., Neher, Deborah, Weicht, Thomas, Bergholz, Teresa M., Sharma, Manan
Journal of food protection 2019 v.82 no.3 pp. 501-506
Salmonella Newport, agricultural land, animal manures, food pathogens, fruits, heat treatment, microorganisms, nutrients, pellets, poultry, runoff, soil, soil amendments, vegetables
Manure runoff can transfer pathogens to farmlands or to water sources, leading to subsequent contamination of produce. Untreated biological soil amendments, like manure, can be contaminated with foodborne pathogens, such as Salmonella Newport, which may lead to transfer of the pathogen to fruits or vegetables. Studies have reported the occurrence and survival of Salmonella in manure or manure slurries. However, data on the survival and growth of Salmonella Newport is lacking in matrices simulating runoff. We quantified the survival and growth of wild-type (WT) Salmonella Newport and rpoS-deficient (ΔrpoS) strains in sterile and nonsterile soil extracts prepared with (amended) or without (unamended) heat-treated poultry pellets at 25°C. Salmonella Newport WT and ΔrpoS populations reached a maximum cell density of 6 to 8 log CFU/mL in 24 to 30 h in amended and unamended soil extracts and remained in stationary phase for up to 4 days. Salmonella Newport in amended soil extracts exhibited a decreased lag phase (λ, 2.87 ± 1.01 h) and greater maximum cell densities (Nmax, 6.84 ± 1.25 CFU/mL) compared with λ (20.10 ± 9.53 h) and Nmax (5.22 ± 0.82 CFU/mL) in unamended soil extracts. In amended soil extract, the ΔrpoS strain had no measurable λ, similar growth rates (μmax) compared with WT, and a lower Nmax compared with the WT strain. Unamended, nonsterile soil extracts did not support the growth of Salmonella Newport WT and led to a decline in populations for the ΔrpoS strain. Salmonella Newport had lower cell densities in nonsterile soil extracts (5.94 ± 0.95 CFU/mL) than it did in sterile soil extracts (6.66 ± 1.50 CFU/mL), potentially indicating competition for nutrients between indigenous microbes and Salmonella Newport. The most favorable growth conditions were provided by amended sterile and nonsterile soil extracts, followed by sterile, unamended soil extracts for both Salmonella Newport strains. Salmonella Newport may grow to greater densities in amended extracts, providing a route for increased Salmonella levels in the growing environments of produce.