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H3N2 canine influenza virus and Enterococcus faecalis coinfection in dogs in China

Zhou, Liwei, Sun, Haoran, Song, Shikai, Liu, Jinhua, Xia, Zhaofei, Sun, Yipeng, Lyu, Yanli
BMC veterinary research 2019 v.15 no.1 pp. 113
Enterococcus faecalis, German Shepherd, Influenza A virus, Oriental traditional medicine, antibiotic resistance, azithromycin, bacteria, bacterial culture, breeding, dogs, enrofloxacin, genes, hematology, hospitals, inflammation, intravenous injection, mixed infection, nose, pneumonia, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, radiography, ribosomal RNA, secondary infection, signs and symptoms (animals and humans), China
BACKGROUND: In May 2017, 17 dogs in a German Shepherd breeding kennel in northern China developed respiratory clinical signs. The owner treated the dogs with an intravenous injection of Shuang-Huang-lian, a traditional Chinese medicine, and azithromycin. The respiratory signs improved 3 days post-treatment, however, cysts were observed in the necks of eight dogs, and three of them died in the following 2 days. CASE PRESENTATION: Quantitative real-time PCR was used to detect canine influenza virus (CIV). All of the dogs in this kennel were positive and the remaining 14 dogs had seroconverted. Two of the dogs were taken to the China Agricultural University Veterinary Teaching Hospital for further examination. Two strains of influenza virus (A/canine/Beijing/0512–133/2017 and A/canine/Beijing/0512–137/2017) isolated from the nasal swabs of these dogs were sequenced and identified as avian-origin H3N2 CIV. For the two dogs admitted to the hospital, hematology showed mild inflammation and radiograph results indicated pneumonia. Cyst fluid was plated for bacterial culture and bacterial 16 s rRNA gene PCR was performed, followed by Sanger sequencing. The results indicated an Enterococcus faecalis infection. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed and dogs were treated with enrofloxacin. All 14 remaining dogs recovered within 16 days. CONCLUSIONS: Coinfection of H3N2 CIV and Enterococcus faecalis was detected in dogs, which has not been reported previously. Our results highlight that CIV infection might promote the secondary infection of opportunistic bacteria and cause more severe and complicated clinical outcomes.