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A new HILIC-ICP-SF-MS method for the quantification of organo(fluoro)phosphates as decomposition products of lithium ion battery electrolytes

Stenzel, Yannick Philipp, Henschel, Jonas, Winter, Martin, Nowak, Sascha
RSC advances 2019 v.9 no.20 pp. 11413-11419
electric vehicles, electrolytes, electronics, hydrophilic interaction chromatography, lithium batteries, mass spectrometry, phosphates, spectrometers, toxicity
The lithium ion battery (LIB) is the most popular choice for powering consumer electronics, grid storage and electric vehicles. Decomposition reactions in LIBs, leading to so-called aging, are the main reason for loss of capacity and power and will affect LIB safety. Organo(fluoro)phosphates (O(F)Ps) as decomposition products of LIB electrolytes have been identified in several studies in the literature but quantitative data of O(F)Ps in LIBs are only scarcely available. In terms of toxicity, this substance class is highly relevant as it shows structural similarities to chemical warfare agents. Thus, approaches that can deliver quantitative data are in need. In this study, acidic O(F)Ps were quantified with an inductively coupled plasma-sector field-mass spectrometer (ICP-SF-MS) after separation of species with hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC). The formation of OFPs exceeds the amount of non-fluorine containing OPs by a factor of up to 15. A total of 16 different O(F)P compounds could successfully be quantified. Organic mass spectrometry was used for the assignment of quantitative data.