Main content area

Induction of neutralizing antibodies against tier 2 human immunodeficiency virus 1 in rhesus macaques infected with tier 1B simian/human immunodeficiency virus

Himeno, Ai, Ishida, Yuki, Mori, Hiromi, Matsuura, Kanako, Kikukawa, Minako, Sakawaki, Hiromi, Miura, Tomoyuki
Archives of virology 2019 v.164 no.5 pp. 1297-1308
CCR5 receptor, CXCR4 receptor, Human immunodeficiency virus 1, Macaca mulatta, clones, models, mutation, mutational analysis, neutralization, neutralizing antibodies, vaccines, viruses
We previously developed CCR5-tropic neutralization-resistant simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) strains and a rhesus macaque model of infection with these SHIVs. We induced the production of neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) against HIV-1 by infecting rhesus macaques with different neutralization-resistant SHIV strains. First, SHIV-MK1 (MK1) (neutralization susceptible, tier 1B) with CCR5 tropism was generated from SHIV-KS661 using CXCR4 as the main co-receptor. nAbs against parental-lineage and heterologous tier 2 viruses were induced by tier 1B virus (MK1) infection of the rhesus macaque MM482. We analyzed viral resistance to neutralization over time in MM482 and observed that the infecting virus mutated from tier 1B to tier 2 at 36 weeks postinfection (wpi). In addition, an analysis of mutations showed that N169D, K187E, S190N, S239, T459N (T459D at 91 wpi), and V842A mutations were present after 36 wpi. This led to the appearance of neutralization-resistant viral clones. In addition, MK1 was passaged in three rhesus macaques to generate neutralization-resistant SHIV-MK38 (MK38) (tier 2). We evaluated nAb production by rhesus macaques infected with SHIV-MK38 #818 (#818) (tier 2), a molecular clone of MK38. Neutralization of the parental lineage was induced earlier than in macaques infected with tier 1B virus, and neutralization activity against heterologous tier 2 virus was beginning to develop. Therefore, CCR5-tropic neutralization-resistant SHIV-infected rhesus macaques may be useful models of anti-HIV-1 nAb production and will facilitate the development of a vaccine that elicits nAbs against HIV-1.