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Concentrations of particulate matter, carbon dioxide, VOCs and risk assessment inside Korean taxis and ships
- Kim, Ho-Hyun, Park, Gee-Young, Lee, Jeong-Hun
- Environmental science and pollution research international 2019 v.26 no.10 pp. 9619-9631
- air, air pollutants, air pollution, air quality, aldehydes, carbon dioxide, carcinogenicity, combustion, mortality, particulates, public transportation, recreation, risk, risk assessment, ships, summer, temperature, volatile organic compounds, South Korea
- The objective of this study was to investigate the concentration distribution of indoor air pollutants in taxis and ships (passengers) which are frequently used for public transportation and recreational activities in South Korea. In addition, it aimed to assess air quality factors to establish and evaluate the health risks of exposure to polluted indoor air. Particulate matter (PM₁₀) concentrations were not affected by the number of passengers, time of day, and driving characteristics because there were only a few passengers (2 to 4 people) and the space was confined. In the ships, indoor air pollutants responded more sensitively to the operation characteristics depending on the time of sailing (i.e., anchoring and departure, movement of vehicles on the ship, movement of passengers, combustion in the shop, and ventilation) than to the number of people boarding and alighting. The carbon dioxide concentrations in different ship rooms did not vary according to season and degree of congestion; however, there were differences between different ships. These differences may result from the size, type, and operating characteristics of the ships. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and aldehydes in new taxis exceeded the standard levels during summer. VOC concentrations in ships were particularly high during summer when the outdoor temperature was high. Similar observations were made for other means of transportation. The risk assessment depended on the means of transportation and demonstrated that mortality risks due to PM₁₀ and excess carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks from VOCs and aldehydes were within safety levels.