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Control of NOx emissions by air staging in small- and medium-scale biomass pellet boilers

Li, Yuening, Lin, Yingchao, Zhao, Jingbo, Liu, Boyang, Wang, Ting, Wang, Peng, Mao, Hongjun
Environmental science and pollution research international 2019 v.26 no.10 pp. 9717-9729
air, air flow, biomass, boilers, combustion, developed countries, emissions, fuels, nitrogen oxides, prototypes, sulfur dioxide, thermogravimetry, wood, China
The effect of air staging strategies on NOₓ control was investigated on a 210-kW small-scale biomass boiler (SBB) and a 1.4-MW medium-scale biomass boiler (MBB). Considering the de-NOₓ effect, as well as the convenience and economy for future wide use, the structures of the secondary air duct and the fuel feed tube were innovatively designed to solve the problems of the traditional prototype. The preliminary experiment showed that the lowest NOₓ emission was achieved when the air excess (ε) was equal to 2.04. Then, additional operating modes were conducted on the MBB to further optimize the air staging strategies. The optimal air staging strategy of the MBB (the secondary to primary air flow ratio (λ) and the ε were equal to 0.13 and 0.76, respectively) could decrease the NOₓ emission from 338.12 to 148.14 mg/m³. Furthermore, the SO₂ emissions and the lowest NOₓ emission of the SBB and the MBB could meet most emission standards of China and some developed countries. The thermogravimetric analysis (TG) and combustion characteristics of the wood fuel showed that the air staging was a suitable de-NOₓ technology for wood combustion, and the slagging was less likely to occur under the selected condition. Hence, the air staging technology was an effective and low-cost method for the emission reduction of biomass boilers. This study provided a practical basis for future research on the gas emission control of biomass boilers.