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Associations of trace elements in blood with the risk of isolated ventricular septum defects and abnormal cardiac structure in children

Zhu, Yu, Xu, Cheng, Zhang, Yuxi, Xie, Zongyun, Shu, Yaqin, Lu, Changgui, Mo, Xuming
Environmental science and pollution research international 2019 v.26 no.10 pp. 10037-10043
aorta, blood, children, confidence interval, echocardiography, gender, heart ventricle, nutrient deficiencies, patients, regression analysis, risk, zinc, China
This study sought to determine correlations between the presence of isolated ventricular septum defects (VSDs) and blood levels of trace elements. A total of 144 patients with VSDs and 144 controls were recruited for cross-sectional assessment of trace elements and examination of cardiac structures in the Jiangsu and Anhui provinces between 2016 and 2018. Logistic regression was performed to explore the relationships between VSDs and trace elements. Additionally, general linear regression models were used to investigate relationships between trace elements and echocardiography indicators. Relative to the lowest zinc (Zn) concentrations, the highest Zn concentrations may be associated with lower odds of VSD development (OR = 0.03, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.01–0.29, P < 0.001). However, no significant relationships between the concentrations of other trace elements and the risk of VSD were identified. Aorta (AO) diameters were markedly smaller in the VSD group, whereas no significant between-group differences were observed for other echocardiography indicators. After adjusting for age and gender, linear regression indicated a significant association between Zn level and mean AO diameter (beta coefficient = 0.247, 95% CI = 0.126–0.367). Zn deficiency was observed in patients with isolated VSDs. Further work to explore the mechanisms by which Zn deficiency leads to VSDs is warranted.