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The impact of fertilizers on the uptake of manganese in Cherry Belle radish plants: implications for human health
- Clarke-Lambert, ShellyAnn, Hilaire, Dickens Saint, Stock, Joachim, Salako, Oluwaseun, Lebetkin, Madelaine, Nasimov, Umarbek, Strothers, Joel, Blasczak-Boxe, Agata, Skeete, Dereck, Blaszczak-Boxe, Christopher
- Environmental science and pollution research international 2019 v.26 no.10 pp. 10414-10428
- USDA, adverse effects, atomic absorption spectrometry, diet, fertilizers, heavy metals, human health, humans, ingestion, inhalation exposure, leaves, manganese, minerals, nutrient databanks, nutrients, radishes, soil
- Miracle-Gro Singles, Miracle-Gro Shake and Feed, and Vigoro fertilizers are associated with net loss/enhancement of Mn, up to an order of magnitude when referenced to controls in soil, radish vegetables, and radish leaves; Mn enhancements are a factor of 4 to 65 below the daily required intake for humans (2–5.5 mg/day). Manganese levels were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). Control soil, radish vegetables, and radish leaves contained 65 μg/g to 146 μg/g (median = 108), 65 μg/g to 357 μg/g (median = 281), and 185 μg/g to 401 μg/g (median = 323) of Mn, correspondingly. Manganese uptake was ten times greater in radish leaves compared to radish vegetables and enhanced by a factor of 3 in soils. Edible radish leaves/vegetables contain 65 times less than human Mn daily requirements. This equates eating 140 lb/day of radish vegetables/leaves. The fertilizers have a minor impact on Mn accumulation in radish leaves/vegetables. The USDA Nutrient Database for radish (0.69 μg/g of Mn) contradicts this notion as one would need to consume ~ 7 to 18 lb/day of radish to satisfy their daily intake. This study complements investigations showing that fertilizers induce minimal uptake of heavy metals in food; simultaneously, the net loss of Mn amounts observed in some samples of radish leaves and vegetables is analogous to the dilution effect of minerals/nutrients in edibles. Although a deficiency/excess of Mn in one’s diet may lead to adverse health effects, background inhalation exposure in general public, occupational, and emergency response settings has a greater influence on one’s propensity toward developing adverse health effects related to Mn inhalation exposure.