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Optimization of enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation from AFEX-treated rice straw
- Zhong, Cheng, Lau, Ming W., Balan, Venkatesh, Dale, Bruce E., Yuan, Ying-Jin
- Applied microbiology and biotechnology 2009 v.84 no.4 pp. 667-676
- Saccharomyces cerevisiae, ammonia, biomass, biorefining, endo-1,4-beta-glucanase, enzymatic hydrolysis, ethanol, ethanol fermentation, glucose, hydrolysis, inoculum density, polygalacturonase, rice straw, washing, xylan, xylanases, xylose
- An abundant agricultural residue, rice straw (RS) was pretreated using ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) process with less than 3% sugar loss. Along with commercial cellulase (Spezyme® CP) at 15 filter paper unit/g of glucan, the addition of Multifect® Xylanase at 2.67 mg protein/g glucan and Multifect® Pectinase at 3.65 mg protein/g glucan was optimized to greatly increase sugar conversion of AFEX-treated RS. During enzymatic hydrolysis even at 6% glucan loading (equivalent to 17.8% solid loading), about 80.6% of glucan and 89.6% of xylan conversions (including monomeric and oligomeric sugars) were achieved. However, oligomeric glucose and xylose accounted for 12.3% of the total glucose and 37.0% of the total xylose, respectively. Comparison among the three ethanologenic strains revealed Saccharomyces cerevisiae 424A(LNH-ST) to be a promising candidate for RS hydrolysate with maximum ethanol metabolic yield of 95.3% and ethanol volumetric productivity of 0.26 g/L/h. The final concentration of ethanol at 37.0 g/L was obtained by S. cerevisiae 424A(LNH-ST) even with low cell density inoculum. A biorefinery combining AFEX pretreatment with S. cerevisiae 424A(LNH-ST) in separate hydrolysis and fermentation could achieve 175.6 g EtOH/kg untreated rice straw at low initial cell density (0.28 g dw/L) without washing pretreated biomass, detoxification, or nutrient supplementation.