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Biosurfactant production by yeasts from different types of soil of the South Shetland Islands (Maritime Antarctica)

Bueno, J.L., Santos, P.A.D., da Silva, R.R., Moguel, I.S., Pessoa, A., Jr, Vianna, M.V., Pagnocca, F.C., Sette, L.D., Gurpilhares, D.B.
Journal of applied microbiology 2019 v.126 no.5 pp. 1402-1413
Candida, biosurfactants, carbon, carbon nitrogen ratio, developmental stages, emulsifying, enzymes, fermentation, glycerol, soil, yeast extract, yeasts, Antarctic region, Antarctica
AIM: To screen and identify a potential biosurfactant‐producing yeast strain isolated from Antarctic soil and to evaluate the fermentation process kinetics of the most promising strain on biosurfactant production using glycerol as carbon source. METHODS AND RESULTS: From the 68 isolated yeast strains, 11 strains were able to produce biosurfactants after Emulsification Index (E.I.) and Drop Collapse tests, reaching an E.I. higher than 10%. Strain 1_4.0 was the best producer, identified as Candida glaebosa based on molecular analysis. Yeast was cultivated in a medium composed of glycerol supplemented with yeast extract for 120 h to determine the process kinetics. The increased C/N ratio affected yeast growth and biosurfactant production. Biosurfactant release was associated with the end of exponential and beginning of the stationary growth phases. Results indicated an E.I. of 30% at the end of the fermentation. CONCLUSIONS: The feasiability of C. glaebosa to produce biosurfactant from a low‐cost medium cultivation shows a great impact on the development of bioresource in the Antarctica terrestrial environment. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Although the diversity of psychrophilic/psychrotolerant micro‐organisms from Antarctica has been the preferred subject of study by microbiologists, terrestrial microfungal communities are scarcely investigated and literature about the biotechnological potential of such micro‐organisms should cover important biomolecules in addition to cold‐adapted enzymes. In the present study, for the first time, the Maritime Antarctica environment was screened as a novel source of biosurfactants produced by micro‐organisms.