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Impact of Successful Weight Loss Maintenance on Serum Lipids and Glucose Concentrations of Previous Participants of a Weight Loss Programme in Accra, Ghana

Ayisi Addo, Sandra, Nti, Christiana, Vuvor, Frederick, Adjimani, Jonathan, Steiner-Asiedu, Matilda
Journal of nutrition and metabolism 2019 v.2019
blood glucose, blood lipids, blood serum, cardiovascular diseases, cholesterol, cross-sectional studies, databases, glucose, glycosylation, hemoglobin, high density lipoprotein, long term effects, low density lipoprotein, normal values, nutritional behavior, obesity, physical activity, public health, triacylglycerols, weight loss, Ghana
Background and Aim. There is a need to investigate the long-term impact of successful weight loss maintenance on blood lipids and glucose concentrations in populations within Africa, where obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD) rates are increasingly becoming a public health threat. The aim of this study was to compare the serum lipid and glucose concentrations of successful and unsuccessful weight loss maintainers who previously participated in the Nutriline Weight Loss Programme (NWLP) in Accra, Ghana. Methods. 112 participants were randomly selected to participate in this cross-sectional study. Baseline and end of weight loss programme anthropometric and programmatic data were accessed via the NWLP archival database. On follow-up, anthropometric data, physical activity, dietary behaviour, serum lipid, and glucose indices were taken. Successful weight loss maintainers (SWLM) were defined as those achieving at least 5% weight loss below the baseline weight at follow-up, otherwise unsuccessful (UWLM). Results. The adjusted serum total cholesterol (TC) concentration was significantly lower for SWLM (5.17 ± 0.99 mmol/L) compared to UWLM (5.59 ± 1.06 mmol/L). Serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), fasting blood glucose (FBG), and glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) concentrations for SWLM versus UWLM did not differ significantly and were as follows: 3.58 ± 0.92 mmol/L versus 3.87 ± 0.99 mmol/L, 1.22 ± 0.38 mmol/L versus 1.17 ± 0.32 mmol/L, 4.48 ± 0.72 mmol/L versus 4.73 ± 1.00 mmol/L, and 5.52 ± 0.39% versus 5.59 ± 0.59%, respectively. Triglyceride (TG) concentration was significantly (P<0.001) lower for SWLM (0.79 ± 0.28 mmol/L) compared to UWLM (1.17 ± 0.51 mmol/L). After adjusting for covariates, it was no longer significant. Additionally, there was no significant association between weight loss maintenance success and having a normal status for selected lipids and glucose parameters. Conclusion. SWLM had a significantly lower serum TC compared to UWLM. In addition, a greater proportion of SWLM had normal values for TC, TG, HbA1c, and LDL out of the six parameters measured although not statistically significant.