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Dictionary-based classifiers for exploiting feature sequence information and their application to hyperspectral remotely sensed data

Patro, Ram Narayan, Subudhi, Subhashree, Biswal, Pradyut Kumar, Dell’Acqua, Fabio
International journal of remote sensing 2019 v.40 no.13 pp. 4996-5024
data collection, image analysis, remote sensing
The problem of classification is shared across various disciplines. Designing even less computationally demanding and more effective classifiers has been a key challenge for researchers for many years. No single classifier can be highly effective for all types of datasets and thus, depending on the data distribution, various classifiers have been proposed in the literature. To our knowledge, feature values have been vastly exploited as the base for discriminating classes, while feature sequence information has been somehow under-exploited so far. In the proposed approach normalised features are sorted and ranked, creating a sequence of finite numbers. The associated rank of the created sequence is used as an additional feature, which in a way defines the sample-specific intra-feature relationship. Three novel dictionary-based approaches such as Sequence Classifier (SC), Sequence-dictionary-based k-Nearest Neighbours Classifier (SDk-NN) and Combined-dictionary-based k-Nearest Neighbours Classifier (CDk-NN) are proposed in this paper. In the case of remotely sensed data, and specifically in Hyper-Spectral Images (HSI), the spectral features (Spectral signatures) represent a strong, object-specific spectral relationship, which is a key point in our proposed approach. In this case, indeed, the proposed classifiers were tested over various (five) HS datasets and found to be effective. Based on the classifiers features, two derived distance measures are proposed and validated for the HS dataset, namely: the Normalised Sequence Distance (NSD) measure and Combined Distance (CD) measure. These measures appear to overperform the conventional Normalised Euclidean Distance (NED) in this context. Also, validation for both binary and multi-class datasets are experimented and their performances are evaluated in terms of accuracy and other standard measures. Experimental results over 21 datasets revealed that the proposed approaches perform comparably, and in some cases even better than other classifiers. Stack-operated, class-specific sparse dictionaries are also introduced in order to reduce the computational complexity, which can be used as an active learning-based approach for optimal training sample selection. Additional tests were performed with variable levels of dictionary sparsity for assessing its impact on accuracy.