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A new approach to generalizing riparian water and air quality function across regions
- Hassanzadeh, Yasaman T., Vidon, Philippe G., Gold, Arthur J., Pradhanang, Soni M., Addy, Kelly
- Environmental monitoring and assessment 2019 v.191 no.5 pp. 282
- air quality, carbon dioxide, edge effects, greenhouse gases, methane, models, multivariate analysis, nitrates, nitrogen, nitrous oxide, peat, phosphates, phosphorus, riparian areas, temperature, water table, watersheds, weather, Ontario
- There is growing interest in generalizing the impact of hydrogeomorphology and weather variables on riparian functions. Here, we used RZ-TRADEOFF to estimate nitrogen, phosphorus, water table (WT) depth, and greenhouse gas (GHG: N₂O, CO₂, CH₄) functions for 80 riparian zones typical of the North American Midwest, Northeast (including Southern Ontario, Canada), and Mid-Atlantic. Sensitivity to weather perturbations was calculated for temperature and precipitation-dependent functions (CO₂, phosphate concentration, and water table), and multivariate statistical analysis on model outputs was conducted to determine trade-offs between riparian functions. Mean model estimates were 93.10 cm for WT depth, 8.45 mg N L⁻¹ for field edge nitrate concentration, 51.57% for nitrate removal, 0.45 mg PO₄³⁻ L⁻¹ for field edge phosphate concentration, 1.5% for subsurface phosphate removal, 91.24% for total overland phosphorus removal, 0.51 mg N m⁻² day⁻¹ for N₂O flux, 5.5 g C m⁻² day⁻¹ for CO₂ fluxes, and − 0.41 mg C m⁻² day⁻¹ and 621.51 mg C m⁻² day⁻¹ for CH₄ fluxes in non-peat sites and peat sites, respectively. Sites in colder climates were most sensitive to weather perturbations for CO₂, sites with deep water tables estimates had the highest sensitivity for WT, and sites in warm climates and/or with deep confining layers had the lowest sensitivity for phosphate concentration. Slope, confining layer depth, and temperature were the primary characteristics influencing similarities and trade-offs between sites. This research contributes to understanding how to optimize riparian restoration and protection in watersheds based on both water (nitrogen, phosphorus) and air quality (GHG) goals.