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Hypsipyla grandella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) Boring Khaya ivorensis (Meliaceae) Fruits and Seeds in Brazil: First Report

Lemes, Pedro Guilherme, Zanuncio, Antonio José Vinha, Oliveira, Leandro Silva de, Matos, Mateus Felipe de, Leite, Germano Leão Demolin, Soares, Marcus Alvarenga, Zanuncio, José Cola, Júnior, Sebastião Lourenço de Assis
TheFlorida entomologist 2019 v.102 no.1 pp. 266-269
Hypsipyla grandella, Khaya ivorensis, Toona ciliata, adults, fruits, indigenous species, industrial forestry, larvae, natural regeneration, pests, pupae, seedling production, seeds, shoots, soil, trees, viability, Brazil, Chile
Hypsipyla grandella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is found throughout Central and South America, except in Chile. Damage caused by this pest in native trees of the subfamily Swietenoideae (Meliaceae) is so intense and severe that it makes industrial forestry with those species unfeasible. It also may damage fruits and seeds of those trees. Damage to reproductive structures may compromise natural regeneration and impair seedling production. Management tactics for this pest include the use of resistant exotic Meliaceae, such as the Australian red cedar (Toona ciliata M. Roem.) and the African mahogany (Khaya ivorensis). The objective of this work was to report, for the first time, damage to K. ivorensis fruits and seeds by H. grandella in Brazil. The study was carried out in a plantation for sawwood production, with about 73,000 trees of K. ivorensis in 175 ha in Corinto, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Ripe and almost ripe bored fruits were collected from the soil beneath 8-yr-old trees in May 2018. The total number of fruits and seeds damaged, the numbers of larvae, pupae, and adults of H. grandella per fruit, the presence of other species, and behavior of this pest were observed. Ten fruits bored by H. grandella were collected. The fruits were damaged internally by larvae of this pest, and half of them had exit holes. Each fruit had, on average, 33.6 seeds, with 99.4% of the seeds damaged, plus 4.2 H. grandella at different development stages. Some fruits did not have the borer, but they were damaged and had the characteristic exit holes of this species. The average number of larvae per fruit was 3.4, with up to 13 larvae in a single fruit. The damage in African mahogany shoots reported in 2016, and the current damage on fruits and seeds show that resistance of K. ivorensis to H. grandella has been broken, probably due to selective pressure over the large area planted with this tree in Brazil. African mahogany plantation viability in Brazil will be affected.