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Metabolic Activation of Myristicin and Its Role in Cellular Toxicity
- Zhu, Xu, Wang, Yi-Kun, Yang, Xiao-Nan, Xiao, Xue-Rong, Zhang, Ting, Yang, Xiu-Wei, Qin, Hong-Bo, Li, Fei
- Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2019 v.67 no.15 pp. 4328-4336
- acetylcysteine, cytochrome P-450, cytotoxicity, hepatocytes, humans, maleates, medicinal plants, metabolism, metabolomics, mice, screening, spices
- Myristicin is widely distributed in spices and medicinal plants. The aim of this study was to explore the role of metabolic activation of myristicin in its potential toxicity through a metabolomic approach. The myristicin–N-acetylcysteine adduct was identified by comparing the metabolic maps of myristicin and 1′-hydroxymyristicin. The supplement of N-acetylcysteine could protect against the cytotoxicity of myristicin and 1′-hydroxymyristicin in primary mouse hepatocytes. When the depletion of intracellular N-acetylcysteine was pretreated with diethyl maleate in hepatocytes, the cytotoxicity induced by myristicin and 1′-hydroxymyristicin was deteriorated. It suggested that the N-acetylcysteine adduct resulting from myristicin bioactivation was closely associated with myristicin toxicity. Screening of human recombinant cytochrome P450s (CYPs) and treatment with CYP inhibitors revealed that CYP1A1 was mainly involved in the formation of 1′-hydroxymyristicin. Collectively, this study provided a global view of myristicin metabolism and identified the N-acetylcysteine adduct resulting from myristicin bioactivation, which could be used for understanding the mechanism of myristicin toxicity.