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Accumulation of Ions in Shoot and Seed of Quinoa (Chenopodium ‎quinoa Willd.) Under Salinity Stress

Maleki, Parisa, Saadat, Saeed, Bahrami, Hossein Ali, Rezaei, Hamed, Esmaeelnejad, Leila
Communications in soil science and plant analysis 2019 v.50 no.6 pp. 782-793
Chenopodium quinoa, calcium, filling period, flowering, halophytes, ions, irrigation, magnesium, saline soils, salinity, salt stress, seeds, semiarid zones, sodium, vegetation
Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a high-nutrient halophyte suitable for ‎cultivating in semi-arid climates and saline soils. The current study investigated the ‎effect of various water salinities (ECᵢ) (i.e., 0.3, 10, 15, 20, and 25 dS m⁻¹) and different ‎irrigation methods (IMs) on accumulation of calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), ‎sodium (Na), and chloride (Cl) ions in shoot (stem+leaves) of quinoa at the end of vegetation (onset of flowering) and seed at the end of seed-filling. Therefore, 30 pots (five ECᵢ and two IM in three replications) were prepared with similar conditions. Considering that the salinity threshold value (STV) of quinoa varies during growth and is 8, 20 and 15 dSm⁻¹ at each of ‎establishment, flowering, and seed-filling growth stages, the two IMs consisted of considering STV at each growth stage (T) and permanent irrigation by ‎constant levels of ECᵢ(P). Results indicated that by increasing the ECᵢ from 0.3 to 25 dSm⁻¹ the amount of Na, Cl, and Mg in shoot increased 82.2%, 75.8%, and 8.7%, respectively, while Ca decreased 37.2%. In seeds, Na and Cl increased 43.3% and 50%, respectively, while Mg increased 8% and Ca did not change significantly. An increase in ECᵢ ‎significantly changed ion accumulation content, especially at ECᵢ higher than STV, ‎because it is the onset of damage due to salinity stress and particularly in‏ ‏‎shoot compared to seed due to the halophytic properties of quinoa. The T ‎method of irrigation was preferred due to less accumulation of Na and Cl in ‎shoot and seed, and therefore less damage and loss, especially at higher ‎salinities.‎