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The variation of metal fractions and potential environmental risk in phytoremediating multiple metal polluted soils using Noccaea caerulescens assisted by LED lights
- Luo, Jie, He, Wenxiang, Xing, Xinli, Wu, Jian, Sophie Gu, X.W.
- Chemosphere 2019 v.227 pp. 462-469
- Noccaea caerulescens, Thlaspi arvense, bioavailability, biomass production, copper, hyperaccumulators, irradiation, leaching, lead, light intensity, phytoremediation, polluted soils, red light, risk, soil remediation, water solubility
- Different light combinations can improve phytoremediation efficiency by increasing the biomass yield and metal concentrations of plants. However, there has been rare research of using hyperaccumulators to change metal fractions and its possible leaching risk during phytoremediation. It was investigated in this study the impacts of different intensities of blue and red light mixed on the biomass production and metal uptake of Noccaea caerulescens and the changes of water soluble and exchangeable metal fractions in soil. The biomass of N. caerulescens increased with light intensity. The increment was relatively slow at 50 m−2 s−1, dramatically increased at 200 m−2 s−1 and decreased significantly when beyond. Under optimal light condition, N. caerulescens produced less biomass than Thlaspi arvense, but the former is significantly more efficient in phytoremediation than the latter because it can accumulate significantly more metals per unit biomass. Without light irradiation, N. caerulescens can deteriorate the potential leaching risk of Cu and Pb by increasing their water soluble and exchangeable fractions in soil comparing with T. arvense. The proportions of bioavailable fractions did not change under the treatment of light at an intensity of 50 m−2 s−1, but decreased obviously when the intensity exceeded 100 m−2 s−1. Therefore, using hyperaccumulator for multiple metal contaminated soil remediation should be conducted with caution since the species can mobilize all metals in soil but only hyperaccumulate part of them, and proper intensity of light can improve the phytoremediation effect and alleviate the leaching risk through decreasing bioactive metal fractions in soil.