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Effect of multiple iron-based nanoparticles on availability of lead and iron, and micro-ecology in lead contaminated soil

Peng, Dinghua, Wu, Bin, Tan, Hang, Hou, Siyu, Liu, Min, Tang, Hao, Yu, Jiang, Xu, Heng
Chemosphere 2019 v.228 pp. 44-53
alkaline soils, biochar, enzyme activity, heavy metals, iron, lead, microbial communities, nanoparticles, polluted soils, remediation, soil enzymes, soil pH, soil pollution, toxicity
Although iron nanoparticles (NPs) have been used for environmental remediation of heavy metal, their potential to remediate lead (Pb) contaminated soil and effect on soil micro-ecology is unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of nanoscale zerovalent iron (nZVI), nanoscale zerovalent iron supported by biochar (nZVI@BC), ferrous sulfide (FeS-NPs), ferrous sulfide supported by biochar (FeS-NPs@BC), ferriferrous oxide (Fe3O4-NPs) and ferriferrous oxide supported by biochar (Fe3O4-NPs@BC) to remediate Pb contaminated soil and the influences for soil micro-ecology. The results showed that biochar (BC) could improve the crystal shape and superficial area of iron-based nanoparticles. Soil pH values was significantly decreased by FeS-NPs and FeS-NPs@BC, but increased by other iron-nanoparticles. The ability to reduce available Pb concentration showed significant difference among these iron-nanoparticles, that is, the immobilized rate were nZVI by 45.80%, nZVI@BC by 54.68%, FeS-NPs by 2.70%, FeS-NPs@BC by 5.13%, Fe3O4-NPs by 47.47%, Fe3O4-NPs@BC by 30.51% at day 90. Almost all soil enzyme activities in Fe3O4-NPs and Fe3O4-NPs@BC groups were increased, but the majority of the enzyme activities were inhibited in other iron-based nanoparticles groups, while the maximum bacterial number was determined in FeS-NPs group. Furthermore, microbial diversity analysis showed that FeS-NPs has significantly changed microbial community richness and diversity, followed by nZVI and Fe3O4-NPs. Accordingly, our results suggested that nZVI@BC had the best immobilization effect on Pb in high-concentration Pb-contaminated alkaline soil, but the toxic effect of Fe3O4-NPs on soil micro-ecology was relatively minimal.