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Effect of multiple iron-based nanoparticles on availability of lead and iron, and micro-ecology in lead contaminated soil
- Peng, Dinghua, Wu, Bin, Tan, Hang, Hou, Siyu, Liu, Min, Tang, Hao, Yu, Jiang, Xu, Heng
- Chemosphere 2019 v.228 pp. 44-53
- alkaline soils, biochar, enzyme activity, heavy metals, iron, lead, microbial communities, nanoparticles, polluted soils, remediation, soil enzymes, soil pH, soil pollution, toxicity
- Although iron nanoparticles (NPs) have been used for environmental remediation of heavy metal, their potential to remediate lead (Pb) contaminated soil and effect on soil micro-ecology is unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of nanoscale zerovalent iron (nZVI), nanoscale zerovalent iron supported by biochar (nZVI@BC), ferrous sulfide (FeS-NPs), ferrous sulfide supported by biochar (FeS-NPs@BC), ferriferrous oxide (Fe3O4-NPs) and ferriferrous oxide supported by biochar (Fe3O4-NPs@BC) to remediate Pb contaminated soil and the influences for soil micro-ecology. The results showed that biochar (BC) could improve the crystal shape and superficial area of iron-based nanoparticles. Soil pH values was significantly decreased by FeS-NPs and FeS-NPs@BC, but increased by other iron-nanoparticles. The ability to reduce available Pb concentration showed significant difference among these iron-nanoparticles, that is, the immobilized rate were nZVI by 45.80%, nZVI@BC by 54.68%, FeS-NPs by 2.70%, FeS-NPs@BC by 5.13%, Fe3O4-NPs by 47.47%, Fe3O4-NPs@BC by 30.51% at day 90. Almost all soil enzyme activities in Fe3O4-NPs and Fe3O4-NPs@BC groups were increased, but the majority of the enzyme activities were inhibited in other iron-based nanoparticles groups, while the maximum bacterial number was determined in FeS-NPs group. Furthermore, microbial diversity analysis showed that FeS-NPs has significantly changed microbial community richness and diversity, followed by nZVI and Fe3O4-NPs. Accordingly, our results suggested that nZVI@BC had the best immobilization effect on Pb in high-concentration Pb-contaminated alkaline soil, but the toxic effect of Fe3O4-NPs on soil micro-ecology was relatively minimal.