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Phytochemical characterization and bioactivities of five Apiaceae species: Natural sources for novel ingredients

Zengin, Gokhan, Mahomoodally, Mohamad Fawzi, Paksoy, Mehmet Yavuz, Picot-Allain, Carene, Glamocilja, Jasmina, Sokovic, Marina, Diuzheva, Alina, Jekő, József, Cziáky, Zoltán, Rodrigues, Maria João, Sinan, Kouadio Ibrahime, Custodio, Luisa
Industrial crops and products 2019 v.135 pp. 107-121
2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, Actinolema macrolema, Bacillus cereus, Falcaria vulgaris, Proteus mirabilis, Smyrnium, acarbose, alpha-amylase, alpha-glucosidase, antibacterial properties, antioxidant activity, antioxidants, cell lines, cholinesterase, cytotoxicity, enzyme inhibitors, ferulic acid, gallic acid, hepatoma, high performance liquid chromatography, ingredients, kidneys, kojic acid, macrophages, methanol, mice, minimum inhibitory concentration, pharmacology, rutin, tandem mass spectrometry, viability
Several species of the Apiaceae family have been employed in traditional cultures for their curative virtues. The present study focused on five Apiaceae species, (Falcaria vulgaris (FV), Smyrniopsis aucheri (SA), Smyrniopsis munzurdagensis (SM), Smyrnium cordifolium (SC), and Actinolema macrolema (AM)). The antioxidant, enzyme inhibitory (α-amylase, α-glucosidase, acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase, lipase, and tyrosinase), antimicrobial, phytochemical, and cytotoxicity profiles of the methanol extracts of the selected Apiaceae species were determined. SC extract (35.68 mg gallic acid equivalent/g extract) possessed the highest phenolic content while the AM extract (56.79 mg rutin equivalent/g extract) had the highest flavonoid content. HPLC-ESI-MS (High performance liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry) analyses showed presence of ferulic acid in all the five species. SC extract exhibited high radical scavenging (59.28 and 94.31 mg Trolox equivalent [TE]/g extract, DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS (2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid), respectively) and reducing activity (161.44 and 113.62 mg TE/g extract, for CUPRAC (cupric reducing antioxidant capacity) and FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power), respectively). SM extract exhibited the highest cholinesterase’s inhibitory action (3.82 and 4.76 mg galantamine equivalent/g extract, for acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase, respectively). The extracts showed higher inhibition against α-glucosidase (7.32-11.99 mmol acarbose equivalent [ACAE]/g extract) compared to α-amylase (0.51-0.55 mmol ACAE/g extract). SC extract was the most active (137.54 mg kojic acid equivalent/g extract) tyrosinase inhibitor and FV extract (113.75 mg Orlistat equivalent/g) the best lipase inhibitor. SM extract showed potent antibacterial effect against B. cereus (MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) 0.180 mg/mL), P. mirabilis (MIC 0.180 mg/mL), M. flavus (MIC 0.560 mg/mL), P. aeruginosa (MIC 0.275 mg/mL), and S. typhimurium (MIC 1.500 mg/mL). FV extract (MIC 0.140 mg/mL) suppressed A. fumigatus growth. Cytotoxicity was assessed on murine macrophage (RAW 264.7), human embryonic kidney (HEK 293), and human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cell lines. FV (60.3%) and SM (57.4%) showed the highest reduction on RAW 264.7 cellular viability, whereas SM (74.1%) showed toxicity against HepG2. This study supports that the Apiaceae species could be considered as promising candidates for the development of novel pharmacophores for the management of several human ailments.