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Looking beyond the skin: Cutaneous and systemic oxidative stress in UVB-induced squamous cell carcinoma in hairless mice
- Carrara, Iriana Moratto, Melo, Gabriella Pasqual, Bernardes, Sara Santos, Neto, Fernando Souza, Ramalho, Leandra Naira Zambelli, Marinello, Poliana Camila, Luiz, Rodrigo Cabral, Cecchini, Rubens, Cecchini, Alessandra Lourenço
- Journal of photochemistry and photobiology 2019 v.195 pp. 17-26
- antioxidant activity, biomarkers, blood, chemical bonding, chemoprevention, females, hyperkeratosis, inflammation, irradiation, metastasis, mice, oxidation, oxidative stress, pathogenesis, protein products, squamous cell carcinoma, ultraviolet radiation
- Cumulative ultraviolet (UV) exposure is associated with squamous skin cell carcinoma. UV radiation induces oxidative modifications in biomolecules of the skin leading to photocarcinogenesis. Indeed, the cyclobutene pyrimidine dimers and other dimers formed by photoaddition between carbon-carbon bonds also have an important role in the initiation process. However, information on the systemic redox status during these processes is scarce. Thus, we investigated the systemic redox profile in UVB-induced squamous cell carcinoma in mice. Female hairless mice were exposed to UVB radiation (cumulative dose = 17.1 J/cm2). The dorsal skin of these mice developed actinic keratosis (AK) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and presented increased levels of oxidative and nitrosative stress biomarkers (4-hydroxy-2-nonenal and 3-nitrotyrosine), and decreased antioxidant defenses. Systemically, we observed the consumption of plasmatic antioxidant defenses and increased levels of advanced oxidized protein products (AOPP), an oxidative stress product derived from systemic inflammatory response. Taken together, our results indicate that UVB chronic irradiation leads not only to adjacent and tumoral oxidative stress in the skin, but it systemically is reflected through the blood. These new findings clarify some aspects of the pathogenesis of SCC and should assist in formulating better chemoprevention strategies, while avoiding additional primary SCC development and metastasis.