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A One Health systematic review of diagnostic tools for Echinococcus multilocularis surveillance: Towards equity in global detection

Schurer, Janna M., Nishimwe, Arlene, Hakizimana, Dieudonne, Li, Huan, Huang, Yu, Musabyimana, Jean Pierre, Tuyishime, Eugene, MacDonald, Lauren E.
Food and Waterborne Parasitology 2019 v.15 pp. e00048
Canidae, Echinococcus multilocularis, One Health initiative, Western blotting, coproantigens, data collection, databases, definitive hosts, diagnostic sensitivity, diagnostic techniques, echinococcosis, environmental monitoring, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, humans, image analysis, immunoaffinity chromatography, intestines, magnetism, parasites, patients, people, politics, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, soil, systematic review, Asia, Europe, North America
Echinococcus multilocularis is a zoonotic cestode of canid definitive hosts that is emerging as a parasite of medical and veterinary concern in regions of North America, Europe and Asia. Infection with the metacestode stage (alveolar echinococcosis – AE) is life-threatening, especially for patients who reside in low resource countries and lack access to modern diagnostic tests and treatments. The overall objectives of this One Health review were to systematically describe the diagnostic tests currently employed in endemic countries to detect E. multilocularis in people, canids and the environment, and to report the test characteristics of new diagnostic techniques for population surveillance. In this systematic review of English and Chinese language databases, we identified 92 primary records of E. multilocularis surveillance in canids (N = 75), humans (N = 20) and/or the environment (food, soil; N = 3) and 12 grey literature records that reported E. multilocularis surveillance or health systems protocols between 2008 and 2018. Surveillance for E. multilocularis was conducted using a broad range of combined morphological, molecular, immunological and imaging techniques. Nine studies reporting diagnostic evaluations for cestode or metacestode detection were identified, including studies on copro-antigen ELISA, copro-PCR, intestinal examination, Western Blot, magnetic capture RT-PCR and immunochromatography. Our dataset includes prevalence estimates for E. multilocularis in canids, people, or environment in 27 of the 43 endemic countries and reports data gaps in surveillance, laboratory methods, and diagnostic sensitivity. International consensus on gold standard diagnostic techniques and harmonization of human, canid and environmental surveillance data across political boundaries are needed to comprehensively assess the global burden and distribution of this parasite.