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Exposure to BTEX in beauty salons: biomonitoring, urinary excretion, clinical symptoms, and health risk assessments
- Moradi, Mahbobeh, Hopke, Philip, Hadei, Mostafa, Eslami, Akbar, Rastkari, Noushin, Naghdali, Zohreh, Kermani, Majid, Emam, Baharan, Farhadi, Mohsen, Shahsavani, Abbas
- Environmental monitoring and assessment 2019 v.191 no.5 pp. 286
- BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene), air, benzene, environmental monitoring, ethylbenzene, excretion, eyes, females, health effects assessments, lungs, neoplasms, nose, occupational exposure, regression analysis, risk, signs and symptoms (animals and humans), stochastic processes, throat, toluene, urine, women, xylene
- Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) concentrations were measured in beauty salons (BS) and in the urine of the beauty practitioners and a control group. Indoor and outdoor concentrations of BTEX were measured in 36 randomly selected salons. Before- and after-shift urinary BTEX were measured from one female non-smoker employee in each salon, and repeated three times. Clinical symptoms in that beautician were assessed by a physician. Thirty-six unexposed women were included as the control group. Cancer and non-cancer risks of exposure were assessed using deterministic and stochastic methods. Average indoor concentrations of BTEX were higher than those in the ambient air. Urinary BTEX concentrations in the beauty practitioners were significantly higher than in the control group. Linear regression showed that 77% of urinary benzene and toluene variations can be explained by their airborne concentrations. A positive significant relationship was found between age and urinary BTEX concentrations. Although the BTEX cancer and non-cancer risks were not significant, BTEX led to irritation of the eyes, throat, lung, and nose. In addition, toluene caused menstrual disorders among beauty practitioners. These results suggest that it is essential to decrease the exposure of beauty practitioners to BTEX compounds.