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Effect of ultrasonic waves on crocin and safranal content and expression of their controlling genes in suspension culture of saffron (Crocus sativus L.)

Taherkhani, Tofigh, Asghari Zakaria, Rasool, Omidi, Mansoor, Zare, Naser
Natural product research 2019 v.33 no.4 pp. 486-493
Crocus sativus, analysis of variance, biosynthesis, callus, corms, elicitors, gene expression, genes, high performance liquid chromatography, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, saffron, secondary metabolites, ultrasonic treatment, ultrasonics
The expression of biosynthesis controlling genes of crocin and safranal in saffron (Crocus sativus) can be influenced by ultrasonic waves. Sterilized saffron corms were cultured in a ½-MS medium supplemented by 2-4-D and BAP. Saffron callus cells were treated with ultrasonic waves in a cellular suspension culture under optimal growth conditions. The samples were collected at 24 and 72 hours after treatment in three replications. The secondary metabolites were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography and the gene expression was analysed by the real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results indicate that this elicitor can influence the expressions of genes CsBCH, CsLYC and CsGT-2; the ultrasonic waves acted as an effective mechanical stimulus to the suspension cultures. The analysis of variance of the ultrasonically produced amounts of safranal and crocin indicates that there is a significant difference between once- and twice-treated samples in that the amount of safranal was the highest within the samples taken from the twice-treated suspension culture at 72 h after the ultrasound treatment, and the crocin was maximised after 24 h passed the twice-applied ultrasound treatment.