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Effect of ultrasonic waves on crocin and safranal content and expression of their controlling genes in suspension culture of saffron (Crocus sativus L.)
- Taherkhani, Tofigh, Asghari Zakaria, Rasool, Omidi, Mansoor, Zare, Naser
- Natural product research 2019 v.33 no.4 pp. 486-493
- Crocus sativus, analysis of variance, biosynthesis, callus, corms, elicitors, gene expression, genes, high performance liquid chromatography, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, saffron, secondary metabolites, ultrasonic treatment, ultrasonics
- The expression of biosynthesis controlling genes of crocin and safranal in saffron (Crocus sativus) can be influenced by ultrasonic waves. Sterilized saffron corms were cultured in a ½-MS medium supplemented by 2-4-D and BAP. Saffron callus cells were treated with ultrasonic waves in a cellular suspension culture under optimal growth conditions. The samples were collected at 24 and 72 hours after treatment in three replications. The secondary metabolites were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography and the gene expression was analysed by the real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results indicate that this elicitor can influence the expressions of genes CsBCH, CsLYC and CsGT-2; the ultrasonic waves acted as an effective mechanical stimulus to the suspension cultures. The analysis of variance of the ultrasonically produced amounts of safranal and crocin indicates that there is a significant difference between once- and twice-treated samples in that the amount of safranal was the highest within the samples taken from the twice-treated suspension culture at 72 h after the ultrasound treatment, and the crocin was maximised after 24 h passed the twice-applied ultrasound treatment.