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Retention of a chromosomal inversion from an anadromous ancestor provides the genetic basis for alternative freshwater ecotypes in rainbow trout

Arostegui, Martin C., Quinn, Thomas P., Seeb, Lisa W., Seeb, James E., McKinney, Garrett J.
Molecular ecology 2019 v.28 no.6 pp. 1412-1427
DNA, Oncorhynchus mykiss, anadromous fish, ancestry, chromosome inversions, chromosomes, ecotypes, genes, genetic variation, habitats, lakes, life history, migratory behavior, single nucleotide polymorphism, spawning, streams, sympatry, trout, watersheds
Migratory behaviour patterns in animals are controlled by a complex genetic architecture. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is a salmonid fish that spawns in streams but exhibits three primary life history pathways: stream‐resident (fluvial), lake‐migrant (adfluvial) and ocean‐migrant (anadromous). Previous studies examining fluvial and anadromous O. mykiss have identified several genes associated with life history divergence including the presence of an inversion complex within chromosome 5 (Omy05) that appears to maintain a suite of linked genes controlling migratory behaviour. However, adfluvial trout are migratory without being anadromous, and the genetic basis for this life history has not been investigated from evolutionary perspectives. We sampled wild, native nonanadromous rainbow trout occupying connected stream and lake habitats in a southwest Alaskan watershed to determine whether these fish exhibit genetic divergence between fluvial and adfluvial ecotypes, and whether that divergence parallels that documented in fluvial and anadromous O. mykiss. Data from restriction site‐associated DNA (RAD) sequencing revealed an association between frequencies of both the Omy05 inversion complex and other single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with habitat type (stream or lake), supporting the genetic divergence of fluvial and adfluvial individuals in sympatry. The presence of a genetic basis for migration into lakes, analogous to that documented for anadromy, indicates that the adfluvial ecotype must be recognized separately from the fluvial form of O. mykiss even though neither is anadromous. These results highlight the genetic architecture underlying migration and the importance of chromosomal inversions in promoting and sustaining intraspecific diversity.