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Paper-Based Disposable Molecular Sensor Constructed from Oxide Nanowires, Cellulose Nanofibers, and Pencil-Drawn Electrodes

Koga, Hirotaka, Nagashima, Kazuki, Huang, Yintong, Zhang, Guozhu, Wang, Chen, Takahashi, Tsunaki, Inoue, Akihide, Yan, Hong, Kanai, Masaki, He, Yong, Uetani, Kojiro, Nogi, Masaya, Yanagida, Takeshi
ACS applied materials & interfaces 2019 v.11 no.16 pp. 15044-15050
biodegradability, carbon electrodes, cellulose, cellulose nanofibers, models, nanowires, nitrogen dioxide, paper, papermaking, zinc oxide
Progress toward the concept of “a trillion sensor universe” requires sensor devices to become more abundant, ubiquitous, and be potentially disposable. Here, we report a paper-based disposable molecular sensor device constructed from a nanowire sensor based on common zinc oxide (ZnO), a wood-derived biodegradable cellulose nanofiber paper substrate, and a low-cost graphite electrode. The ZnO nanowire/cellulose nanofiber composite structure is embedded in the surface of the cellulose nanofiber paper substrate via a two-step papermaking process. This structure provides a mechanically robust and efficiently bridged network for the nanowire sensor, while ensuring efficient access to target molecules and allowing reliable electrical contact with electrodes. The as-fabricated paper sensor device with pencil-drawn graphite electrodes exhibits efficient resistance change-based molecular sensing of NO₂ as a model gas. The performance of our device is comparable to that of noble metal electrodes. Furthermore, we demonstrate cut-and-paste usability and easy disposal of the sensor device with its uniform in-plane sensing properties. Our strategy offers a disposable molecular sensing platform for use in future sensor network technologies.