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Effects of operating parameters on in situ NH3 emission control during kitchen waste composting and correlation analysis of the related microbial communities

Ding, Ying, Wei, Jiaojiao, Xiong, Junsheng, Zhou, Bowei, Cai, Hanjiang, Zhu, Weiqin, Zhang, Hangjun
Environmental science and pollution research international 2019 v.26 no.12 pp. 11756-11766
Methanosaeta, Nitrobacter, Nitrosomonas, Nitrosospira, Pseudomonas, Rhodobacter, Sphingobacterium, aeration, ammonia, carbon nitrogen ratio, composting, high-throughput nucleotide sequencing, kitchen waste, microbial communities, nitrogen, odor control, odors, water content
Ammonia emission during composting results in anthropogenic odor nuisance and reduces the agronomic value of the compost due to the loss of nitrogen. Adjusting the operating parameters during composting is an emerging in situ odor control technique that is cheap and highly efficient. The effects of in situ NH₃ emission control were investigated in this study by simultaneously adjusting key operating parameters (such as C/N ratio, aeration rate, and moisture content) during the composting processes (C1–C9). Results showed that the average NH₃ emission concentrations for different treatments were in the order of C1 > C4 > C2 > C5 > C3 > C6 > C7 > C8 > C9. The total content of NH₃ emission (21.02 g/kg) in C9 (C/N ratio = 35, aeration rate = 15 L/min, and moisture content = 60%) was much lower than that (65.95 g/kg) in C1 (C/N ratio = 15, aeration rate = 5 L/min, and moisture content = 60%). The nitrogen loss ratio was 27.36% for C1, while 16.15% for C9. The microbial diversity and abundance in C9 and C1 were compared using high-throughput sequencing. The relationship between NH₃ emission, operating parameters, and the related functional microbial communities was also investigated. Results revealed that Nitrosospira, Nitrosomonas, Nitrobacter, Pseudomonas, Methanosaeta, Rhodobacter, Paracoccus, and Sphingobacterium were negatively related to NH₃ emission. According to the above results, the optimal values for different operating parameters for the in situ NH₃ control during kitchen waste composting were, respectively, moisture content of 70%, C/N ratio of 35, and aeration rate of 15 L/min, with the order of effectiveness from high to low being aeration rate > C/N > moisture. This information could be used as a valuable reference for the in situ NH₃ emission control during kitchen waste composting.