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Sonocatalytic degradation of butylparaben in aqueous phase over Pd/C nanoparticles
- Bampos, Georgios, Frontistis, Zacharias
- Environmental science and pollution research international 2019 v.26 no.12 pp. 11905-11919
- adsorption, bicarbonates, catalysts, chlorides, humic acids, nanoparticles, sonocatalysis, soot
- In the present work, the sonocatalytic degradation of butylparaben was investigated using Pd immobilized on carbon black as the sonocatalyst. The presence of 25 mg/L 10Pd/C significantly increased the removal rate of butylparaben and the observed kinetic constant increased from 0.0126 to 0.071 min⁻¹, while the synergy index between sonolysis and adsorption was 70.7%. The BP degradation followed pseudo-first-order kinetics with the apparent kinetic constant decreased from 0.071 to 0.030 min⁻¹ when the initial concentration of butylparaben increased from 0.5 to 2 mg/L. The process was being favored slightly under alkaline conditions. The presence of organic matter (20 mg/L humic acid) reduced the apparent kinetic constant more than two times. The addition of chlorides up to 250 mg/L did not significantly reduce the rate of reaction, while the presence of 250 mg/L bicarbonates reduced the observed kinetic constant from 0.071 to 0.0472 min⁻¹. The prepared catalyst retains the efficiency after five subsequent experiments since the apparent kinetic constant was only slightly decreased from 0.071 to 0.059 min⁻¹.