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Sonocatalytic degradation of butylparaben in aqueous phase over Pd/C nanoparticles

Bampos, Georgios, Frontistis, Zacharias
Environmental science and pollution research international 2019 v.26 no.12 pp. 11905-11919
adsorption, bicarbonates, catalysts, chlorides, humic acids, nanoparticles, sonocatalysis, soot
In the present work, the sonocatalytic degradation of butylparaben was investigated using Pd immobilized on carbon black as the sonocatalyst. The presence of 25 mg/L 10Pd/C significantly increased the removal rate of butylparaben and the observed kinetic constant increased from 0.0126 to 0.071 min⁻¹, while the synergy index between sonolysis and adsorption was 70.7%. The BP degradation followed pseudo-first-order kinetics with the apparent kinetic constant decreased from 0.071 to 0.030 min⁻¹ when the initial concentration of butylparaben increased from 0.5 to 2 mg/L. The process was being favored slightly under alkaline conditions. The presence of organic matter (20 mg/L humic acid) reduced the apparent kinetic constant more than two times. The addition of chlorides up to 250 mg/L did not significantly reduce the rate of reaction, while the presence of 250 mg/L bicarbonates reduced the observed kinetic constant from 0.071 to 0.0472 min⁻¹. The prepared catalyst retains the efficiency after five subsequent experiments since the apparent kinetic constant was only slightly decreased from 0.071 to 0.059 min⁻¹.