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Lower cadmium accumulation and higher antioxidative capacity in edible parts of Brassica campestris L. seedlings applied with glutathione under cadmium toxicity

Huang, Yifan, Zhu, Zhengbo, Wu, Xue, Liu, Zili, Zou, Jianwen, Chen, Yahua, Su, Nana, Cui, Jin
Environmental science and pollution research international 2019 v.26 no.13 pp. 13235-13245
Brassica rapa subsp. oleifera, abiotic stress, antioxidant activity, ascorbic acid, cadmium, dehydroascorbic acid, enzymes, glutathione, growth retardation, hydrogen peroxide, hydroponics, image analysis, lipid peroxidation, oxidation, plant response, protective effect, roots, seedlings, shoots, superoxide anion, toxicity
Glutathione (GSH) is involved in not only plant developmental processes but also plant responses to abiotic stresses. A hydroponic experiment was performed to explore the protective roles of exogenous GSH in mitigating cadmium (Cd) stress in Brassica campestris L. seedlings by analyzing the morphological and physiological parameters. Results showed that Cd caused severe growth inhibition and Cd accumulation. However, application of GSH significantly mitigated toxic symptoms induced by Cd, including the improvement of the photosynthesis-, plant growth-, and root morphology-related parameters in seedlings under Cd stress. These responses were associated with a striking increase in activities of representative antioxidative enzymes and contents of corresponding non-enzymatic antioxidants. In vivo imaging of O₂.⁻ and H₂O₂, and the detection of lipid peroxidation further demonstrated that increased ability by GSH for Brassica campestris L. seedlings to endure Cd stress was consistent with a striking elevation of ratios of reduced to oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) and ascorbic acid to dehydroascorbic acid (AsA/DHA). Additionally, GSH application increased Cd retained in roots, thus significantly decreased its translocation from root to shoot, ultimately decreased Cd accumulation in shoots. Taken together, our results proved evidence for GSH in ameliorating Cd toxicity via reducing Cd accumulation in shoots and increasing oxidation resistance. Accordingly, application of GSH could be a high-efficiency and promising strategy to decrease Cd concentration in edible parts of Brassica campestris L. in agricultural production.