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Modulation of photosynthetic parameters, sugar metabolism, polyamine and ion contents by silicon amendments in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings exposed to arsenic
- Sil, Palin, Das, Prabal, Biswas, Soumyajit, Mazumdar, Asis, Biswas, Asok K.
- Environmental science and pollution research international 2019 v.26 no.13 pp. 13630-13648
- Triticum aestivum, arsenates, arsenic, beta-fructofuranosidase, chlorophyll, cultivars, ecotoxicology, gas exchange, hydroponics, phosphorylase, photosynthesis, pollution, putrescine, risk, seedlings, silicates, silicon, spermidine, spermine, starch, sucrose synthase, sucrose-phosphate synthase, sugar content, wheat
- The objective of the present investigation was to consider the effectiveness of exogenous silicate supplementation in reviving the arsenate imposed alterations on pigment content, Hill activity, photosynthetic parameters, sugar metabolism, polyamine, and ion contents in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. PBW-343) seedlings. Experiments were conducted under different levels of arsenate (0, 25 μM, 50 μM, and 100 μM) in combination with silicate (0, 5 mM) in a hydroponic environment with modified Hoagland’s solution for 21 days to determine the ameliorative role of silicon (Si). Arsenate exposure led to a decline in chlorophyll content by 28% and Hill activity by 30% on an average along with photosynthetic parameters. Activity of starch phosphorylase increased causing a subsequent decrease in starch contents by 26%. Degradation of starch enhanced sugar contents by 61% in the test cultivar. Dose-dependant increments in the activities of carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes viz., sucrose synthase, sucrose phosphate synthase, and acid invertase were also noted. Putrescine content was significantly enhanced along with a consequent decline in spermidine and spermine contents. The macro- and micronutrient contents declined proportionally with arsenate imposition. Conversely, silicate amendments irrespective of all arsenate concentrations brought about considerable alterations in all parameters tested with respect to arsenate treatment alone. Marked improvement in pigment content and Hill activity also improved the gas exchange parameters. Soluble sugar contents decreased and starch contents were enhanced. Increase in polyamine contents improved the ionic balance in the test cultivar as well. This study highlights the potentiality of silicon in ameliorating the ecotoxicological risks associated with arsenic pollution and the probable ability of silicon to offer an approach in mitigating arsenate-induced stress leading to restoration of growth and metabolism in wheat seedlings.