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'Flying Dragon' and 'Swingle' rootstocks development: substrate and tegument influence on seedlings emergence

L. A. C. Maro, V. W. Forest, R. Pescador
Acta horticulturae 2019 no.1230 pp. 91-100
Citrus, coconuts, experimental design, farmers, germination, polyembryony, poultry manure, profitability, root systems, roots, rootstocks, seedlings, seeds, shoots, soil quality, Brazil
The production of citrus seedlings in Santa Catarina State has grown in the last few years. However, the process of seedlings production needs adjustment in order to optimize the system to get genetic material with high phytotechnical standard that allows greater profitability to the farmer. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the effect of different substrates and the removal of tegument on the seedlings formation of 'Swingle' and 'Flying Dragon' rootstocks. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 2×4×2 factorial design, with two rootstocks ('Swingle' and 'Flying Dragon'), four substrates (commercial 1 - Rohrbacher®, comercial 2 - Golden Mix®, commercial 3 - Tecnomax®, 4 - formulated from green coconut waste added poultry manure), and absence and presence of tegument. The evaluated parameters were percentage of germination, speed of germination index, polyembryony, size of root and shoot. The formulated presented the lowest value for both germination and speed of germination index, for which reason the other evaluations were disregarded. The polyembryony did not show significant difference when the seeds were submitted to the treatment, not having direct influence on the seeding condition. Regarding the rootstocks, 'Swingle' seeds showed better results with the removal of tegument whereas 'Flying Dragon' seeds were better with tegument. The commercial substrates 1 and 3 provided higher mean values for both rootstocks in the root length variable, indicating the dependence of soil conditions on the root system. In the shoot, genetic characteristics exceed the interaction with the substrate factor, presenting greater development of 'Swingle'. It was concluded the removal of the tegument is not favorable because the low cost-benefit. The most promising rootstock was 'Swingle' and the commercial substrates 1 and 3.