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Effect of sewage amendment on the dissipation of terbuthylazine, its degradation compound desethyl-terbuthylazine, and S-metolachlor in a field study
- Carretta, Laura, Cardinali, Alessandra, Zanin, Giuseppe, Masin, Roberta
- Journal of environmental science and health 2019 v.54 no.3 pp. 187-195
- agricultural land, demonstration farms, environmental fate, liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, metabolites, metolachlor, microorganisms, mineral fertilizers, mineralization, sewage, sewage sludge, soil, soil amendments, terbuthylazine, Italy
- This study evaluates the effect of sewage amendment (SA) on the dissipation of terbuthylazine, its degradation compound desethyl-terbuthylazine, and S-metolachlor in the soil. The experiment was conducted at Padua Experimental Farm (Italy). Herbicides dissipation was evaluated in soils differently fertilized for three years: with inorganic fertilizer, with sewage sludge, and with a combination of them. Terbuthylazine and S-metolachlor were applied on sorghum as a formulated product at a dose of 2.8 L ha⁻¹, and their dissipation was followed for 2.5 months. The concentrations of herbicides and one metabolite in soil were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The dissipation of terbuthylazine and S-metolachlor followed a pseudo first order kinetics; they dissipated faster in soil amended only with inorganic fertilizer than in soils amended with sewage or sewage + inorganic fertilizer. The reduction in mineralization of the herbicides after sewage addition can be attributed to the reduced herbicide availability to microorganisms. The degradation of terbuthylazine led to the formation of desethyl-terbuthylazine. SA slowed down the formation and the degradation of desethyl-terbuthylazine, leading to a higher amount measured at the end of the incubation. These findings have practical implications for the assessment of the environmental fate of terbuthylazine and S-metolachlor in agricultural areas.